Q 2: Most of the foodstuffs here, even bread, include
preservatives that contain very small amounts of alcohol.
What should a Muslim do in this situation, particularly when alternatives are not readily available?
If some foodstuffs or beverages are proved to contain alcohol that actually affects them, it will not be permissible for the Muslim to use, (Part No. 22; Page No. 154) eat, or drink them. Indeed, Allah (Glorified be He) has prohibited Khamr (intoxicant), whether it in large or small quantities. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
"If a large amount of anything causes intoxication, a small amount of it is Haram (prohibited)."
May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.